Monitoring preparation load: Quo vadis? #3

The get-go 2 posts dealt amongst cheap together with to a greater extent than expensive methods. I volition at nowadays hash out the exercise of psychometric tools to instruct some other dimension of monitoring grooming loads. I induce got non discussed the exercise of GPS or similar technologies, only volition comprehend this inwards the side yesteryear side post.

I actually desire to nowadays some information on diverse tools currently used together with hash out pros together with cons of them.

Profile of Mood U.S.A. (POMS)

The Profile of Mood States (POMS) is a psychological rating scale used to assess transient, distinct mood states. The master copy scale, developed yesteryear McNair et al, has 65 items describing feelings people have.  There is a brief version,  comprising xi of the master copy POMS items, developed yesteryear Cella et al, inwards 1987.  However, this version (Brief POMS) provides exclusively ane score for overall psychological distress.  There is yet some other version called the brusque shape of the Profile of Mood U.S.A. (POMS-SF) developed yesteryear Shacham inwards 1983.  The brusque shape version contains 37 items, selected from the master copy POMS.  It retains the 6 subscale information provided yesteryear POMS. The POM–Bipolar is the newest add-on to the POMS. It measures moods together with feelings primarily inwards clinical rather than nonclinical settings. It tin sack aid to create upward one’s heed an individual’s psychiatric condition for therapy, or hold out used to compare mood profiles associated amongst diverse personality disorders. In nonclinical settings, the POMS–Bipolar tin sack assess mood changes produced yesteryear techniques such every bit psychotherapy or meditation.

Here it is possible to download a POMS scale.

This scale has been used inwards a multifariousness of populations amongst to a greater extent than than 2000 studies beingness performed using it. However in that place is a paucity of information on athletes together with its links to other measures of overtraining together with overreaching.

The POMS assessments are self-report inventories inwards which respondents charge per unit of measurement a serial of mood states (such every bit "Untroubled" or "Sorry for things done") based on how good each exceptional describes the respondent’s mood during ane of 3 fourth dimension frames (i.e., during the yesteryear week, including today; correct now; other). Normative information are based on the "during the yesteryear week, including today" fourth dimension frame. The POMS Standard shape contains 65 items together with takes some 10 minutes to complete. The respondent rates each exceptional on a 5-point scale ranging from “Not at all” to “Extremely”. The POMS Brief form, which is ideal for exercise amongst patients for whom ordinary tasks tin sack hold out hard together with time-consuming, uses the same scale every bit the POMS Standard form, only contains exclusively xxx items. It takes exclusively five minutes to complete. Both the POMS Standard together with POMS

Brief assessments mensurate 6 identified mood factors:

• Tension-Anxiety
• Depression-Dejection
• Anger-Hostility
• Vigor-Activity
• Fatigue-Inertia
• Confusion-Bewilderment

The POMS-Bi shape contains 72 items together with uses a 4-point scale. It takes some 10 minutes to complete. Responses for the POMS-Bi attain from “Much dissimilar this” to “Much similar this”. Unlike the other POMS assessments, the POMS-Bi measures both positive together with negative affects. For each of the 6 bipolar scales, ane pole represents the positive aspects of the dimension acre the other pole refers to the negative aspects:

• Composed-Anxious
• Agreeable-Hostile
• Elated-Depressed
• Confident-Unsure
• Energetic-Tired
• Clearheaded-Confused

Since 1971, numerous enquiry studies induce got provided evidence for the predictive together with build validity of the POMS Standard together with POMS Brief assessments. Alpha coefficient together with other studies induce got flora the POMS Standard together with POMS Brief to exhibit a highly satisfactory grade of internal consistency, acre production 2nd correlations dot a reasonable grade of test-retest reliability. Factor analytic replications render evidence of the factorial validity of the 6 mood factors, together with an exam of the private items defining each mood nation supporting the content validity of the component scores. Studies induce got also supported the bipolar nature of moods measured yesteryear the POMS-Bi assessment, together with reliability studies induce got shown that POMS-Bi items demonstrate sufficient internal consistency.

One of the get-go encouraging studies yesteryear O’Connor et al. (1989) examined POMS scores together with resting salivary cortisol levels inwards xiv woman somebody college swimmers during progressive increases together with decreases inwards grooming volume, together with were compared to the same measures inwards 8 active college women who served every bit controls. Training mass increased from 2,000 yards/day inwards September (baseline) to a peak of 12,000 yards/day inwards Jan (overtraining), followed yesteryear a reduction inwards grooming (taper) to 4,500 yards/day yesteryear February. The swimmers experienced important alterations inwards tension, depression, anger, vigor, fatigue together with global mood across the grooming flavor compared to the controls. Salivary cortisol was significantly greater inwards the swimmers compared to the controls during baseline together with overtraining, only was non different betwixt the groups next the taper. Salivary cortisol was significantly correlated amongst depressed mood during overtraining (r = .50) only non at baseline or taper. Global mood, depression, together with salivary cortisol were significantly higher during the overtraining stage inwards those swimmers classified every bit stale, compared to those swimmers who did non exhibit large performance decrements.

This was ane of the initial studies suggesting a link betwixt increasing grooming workloads, POMS scores together with cortisol responses advocating the possibility of using this psychometric tool to empathise how athletes were coping amongst grooming loads.

Urhausen et al. (1998) flora that the parameters of mood nation at ease every bit good every bit the subjective rating of perceived exertion during exercise were significantly impaired during overtraining inwards a follow upward study amongst endurance athletes.

Filaire et al. (2001) used POMS together amongst endocrine markers to study soccer players together with flora that inwards such grouping decreased testosterone to cortisol ratio does non automatically Pb to a decrease inwards squad performance or a nation of squad overtraining. However, they suggested that combined psychological together with physiological changes during high-intensity grooming are primarily of involvement when monitoring grooming stress inwards relation to performance.

It seems thence clear that POMS has the potential to hold out used to assess how athletes instruct by amongst grooming loads together with POMS score tin sack potentially induce got a link amongst hormonal  imbalances.

REST Q Questionnaire

The Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes [RESTQ-Sport] is a questionnaire reported to seat the extent to which athletes are physically or mentally stressed together with their electrical flow perception of recovery (Kellmann & Kallus, 2000 together with Kellmann & Kallus 2001). It has been used yesteryear many individuals together with organizations throughout the basis together with tin sack thence hold out reasonably estimated to induce got been used on at to the lowest degree several grand high-performance athletes every bit a diagnostic tool to uncovering under-recovery states together with to innovation recovery practices. The predecessor of this psychometric tool was a General Recovery-Stress Questionnaire (Kallus, 1995) formulated on the thought that people volition answer differently to physiological together with psychological demands depending on how well-rested they are when faced amongst these demands.

The RESTQ-Sport was constructed based on the notion that an athlete good recovered may perform improve than ane who is under-recovered. However, theoretical together with practical concerns governed the methods used to create upward one’s heed the nineteen subscales of the RESTQ-Sport (Kellmann & Kallus, 2000 together with Kellmann & Kallus, 2001) used an a priori method of identifying each of the subscales, combining to shape several scales that reverberate diverse aspects of stress together with recovery. The RESTQ-Sport was developed through enquiry inwards the expanse of stress for the General Scale, together with the Sport Scale was comprised of items observed to coincide amongst stress or recovery states inwards athletes (Kellmann & Kallus, 2001).

The evidence consists of vii stress scales, together with five recovery scales.

The scales are:

General stress
Emotional stress
Social stress
Conflict
Fatigue
Lack of release energy
Physical complaints
Success
Social recovery
Physical recovery
General well-being
Sleep lineament
Disturbed breaks
Burnout/emotional exhaustion
Fitness/injury
Fitness/being inwards shape
Burnout/personal accomplishment
Self-efficacy
Self-regulation

If you lot are interested inwards knowing to a greater extent than well-nigh this evidence together with induce got a software to score the results, I strongly propose you lot purchase Dr. Kellmann’s together with Kallus’ mass at Human Kinetics. The mass also contains a software to score the questionnaire together with render you lot amongst a graph.

The graph commonly looks similar this ane presented yesteryear James Marshall inwards his blog:

Figure 1

However, you lot tin sack develop your ain spreadsheet to score it together with graph it every bit I did.

image

Many studies induce got shown how valid together with reliable this evidence is. However ane of the most interesting ones was published yesteryear Jurimae et al. (2004). They studied the effects of increasing grooming loads inwards competitive rowers together with flora important relationships betwixt grooming mass together with Fatigue scores (r=0.49), Somatic Complaints (r=0.50} together with Sleep Quality (r=-0.58) at the terminate of heavy training. In addition, important relationships were also observed betwixt cortisol together with Fatigue scores (r=0.48) at the terminate of heavy grooming every bit good every bit betwixt changes inwards cortisol together with changes inwards Fatigue (r=0.57) together with Social Stress (r=0.51).

It should hold out pointed out that this evidence cannot hold out performed every 24-hour interval every bit it asks the athlete well-nigh how oft the respondent participated inwards diverse activities during the preceding 3 days/nights. Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 Likert-type scale is used amongst values ranging from 0 (never) to 6 (always) to rank the frequency of activities/experiences of the preceding 3 days/nights.

BORG scale together with perception of effort

The concept of perceived exertion was introduced one-half a century agone together with an operational Definition presented amongst methods to mensurate different aspects of perceived effort, strain together with fatigue. One rattling mutual method is the RPE-Scale for "Ratings of Perceived Exertion" ("the Borg Scale") officially known at nowadays every bit the "Borg RPE Scale®".

As Professor Borg explains: “Stevens’ "Ratio (R) scaling methods for determinations of S-R-functions induce got been improved inwards social club non exclusively to obtain relative functions only also at ane time ("absolute") levels of intensity. This was done yesteryear placing verbal anchors, from elementary category (C) scales (rank social club scales) such every bit "very weak", "moderate", "strong" etc at the best possible seat on a ratio scale, a "CR-scale", roofing the full subjective dynamic range, together with then that a congruence inwards pregnant was obtained betwixt the numbers together with the anchors”.

If you lot are actually interested inwards this you lot should read Dr. Elisabet Borg’s thesis here where she presents the innovative approach to develop the "Borg CR100 Scale®" (also called the "centiMax Scale"). I had the pleasance to withdraw heed to her lecture final twelvemonth inwards Italy together with I was impressed yesteryear the lineament of piece of occupation she has done to follow upward her father’s intuitions on the master copy charge per unit of measurement of perceived exertion.

You tin sack read to a greater extent than well-nigh Dr. Elisabet Borg here together with well-nigh Professor Gunnar Borg here.

Recommendations to exercise a "Borg Scale" is given yesteryear many professional person societies, e.g. American Heart Association www.americanheart.org, American Thoracic Society www.thoracic.org, American College of Sports Medicine www.acsm.org, British Association for Cardiac Rehabilitation www.bacrphaseiv.co.uk.

These scales tin sack hold out obtained from the firm: "Borg Perception", Gunnar Borg, Rädisvägen 124, 165 73 Hässelby, Sweden. Phone 46-8-271426. E-mail:borgperception@telia.com.

Other alternatives

There are diverse tools out in that place these days such every bit the next ones:

  • Life Stress (LESCA)
  • State trait anxiety inventory (STAI)
  • Athletic coping skills inventory (ACSI)

however I induce got no experience inwards using them…maybe some of you lot readers know to a greater extent than together with what to write comments well-nigh whatsoever of them?

Enough information at nowadays for psychometric tools…next post volition comprehend aspects connected to strength, mightiness together with speed.