Professional volleyball is becoming to a greater extent than together with to a greater extent than demanding from a physical standpoint. The number of competitions is increasing together with elite players are involved inwards those all-year-round. In fact, players involved inwards guild championships together with national squad tournaments play a rattling high number of matches together with take away hold rattling few ease periods during the year. We could state that the sporting flavor for those individuals is never-ending. If nosotros besides reckon top clubs, nosotros tin easily run into that during the final years the number of matches increased. This is due to the fact that top teams are non solely involved inwards playing the national championship, but besides inwards national together with European cups. This increased demand is of course of instruction changing the way physical conditioning was done before. Nowadays in that location is a necessitate for a right planning of the activities, travels together with ease periods inwards monastic tell to survive able to avoid overuse injuries, overtraning together with underperformance. The key for beingness able to preclude all of the to a higher house is a rattling good planned periodization, which needs to survive monitored on a weekly soil together with corrected during the season. Before planning whatever type of computer program it is of import to survive aware what are the physical demands of the game. Some players play different positions together with thus take away hold different needs (i.e. Libero, Setter together with Opposite). Then, it is of import to found private characteristics (and surgical operation level). In this connector it should survive pointed that appropriate tests should survive utilised inwards monastic tell to gain data which could survive useful inwards the evolution of the grooming computer program itself. The grooming programme should together with then survive individualised based upon each player’s private characteristics.
The periodization excogitation has to accept into draw concern human relationship the official together with friendly matches, the ease periods together with the full number of grooming sessions.
Strength grooming sessions tin survive planned during the competitive flavor if a proper work-to-rest planning is performed. Testing together with grooming monitoring is extremely important, since it is the solely way to create upward one’s take away heed adaptations together with preclude overtraining syndrome or underperformance. By controlling adaptations nosotros are inwards fact able to re-evaluate athletes’ grade of surgical operation together with and then nosotros tin modify the grooming methodology, the exercises together with the computer program itself together with survive able to take away hold farther improvements.
With this inwards mind, before coming to roughly practical examples, it is of import to re-consider roughly of the concepts behind periodization.
Strength training, periodization together with volleyball
Strength grooming should survive implemented inwards volleyball non solely to improve jumping might together with spiking velocity. Volleyball surgical operation is characterised besides past times the might to keep a adept balanced seat when receiving together with passing the ball, performing a dig or a block together with sustaining the affect of fast balls amongst the upper body. Strength grooming should survive together with then directed together with focused non solely on the lower limbs but besides on the upper limbs together with the body most of all to avoid injuries, but besides amongst the sentiment of improving roughly specific technical skills.
Most of the enquiry studies published inwards the literature take away hold been carried out using physical educations students, untrained people or recreational players, together with nosotros all know that grooming an elite athlete is a different issue. The higher the grade of the athlete, the to a greater extent than hard is make enhancement of performance. However, the principles presented inwards this weblog article could survive extended to all type of volleyball players.
Before discussing periodization, it is of import to remind what are the effects of strength grooming exercises. The adaptation to the grooming stimulus is related to the modification induced past times the repetition of daily exercise, together with is specific for the cause executed (Edington together with Edgerton, 1976). These adaptations are related to the fact that human skeletal musculus is a specialized tissue which modifies its overall constituent capacity inwards answer to chronic practise amongst high loads (McDonagh together with Davies, 1984). The to a higher house mentioned findings all propose that resistance practise tin survive an effective way for enhancing neuromuscular performance. In this connector it should survive noticed that changes inside the musculus itself constitute the most of import adaptation to resistance practise (Sale, 1988; Behm, 1995). In fact, strength grooming answer has been shown to survive mediated past times both neurogenic together with myogenic factors (Moritani together with De Vries, 1979). Neural adaptations take away hold been indicated every bit the foremost changes occurring inwards the muscle, permitting gains inwards musculus strength together with might inwards the early on stages of a resistance practise computer program inwards the absence of increment inwards cross-sectional expanse of the musculus (Behm, 1995; Costill et al. 1979; Sale, 1988). It has been besides demonstrated that specific adaptations hap depending on the grooming computer program implemented (Sale together with Mc Dougall, 1981). Strength grooming then, tin survive considered a grooming stimulus which produces specific adaptations on human skeletal muscles, based upon the protocol utilized for training. The specificity lawsuit of strength grooming has been underlined past times many authors (Sale, 1988; Behm, 1995; Morrisey et al. 1995; Bandy et al. 1990) together with the velocity specificity lawsuit has been suggested every bit i of the most interesting outcome of resistance practise programs. However, fifty-fifty if the mechanisms underlining this velocity-specificity lawsuit take away hold non been clearly defined, most importance has been given to neural adaptations such every bit improved coordination, increased activation of prime number movers muscles (Moritani together with De Vries, 1979) recruitment together with synchronization.
It appears together with then clear that amongst strength grooming the neuromuscular organization is able to perform to a higher level. It is besides clear that several neurological mechanisms are involved inwards the early on gains, amongst hypertrophy beingness the final pace of the adaptations process. Strength grooming impacts several systems, inwards fact endocrine, skeletal, metabolic, immune, neural together with respiratory acuate together with chronic responses take away hold been observed next unmarried bouts or repeated bouts of strength training.
With this inwards take away heed nosotros take away hold together with then to state that the careful pick of the grooming variables (volume, intensity, density together with exercises) determines the effectiveness of the program. Exercises should survive chosen based upon the possibility of transfer inwards competition-specific motions. The parameters to command such outcome are rattling simple: muscle-joint mechanics together with muscular activation timing.
Let’s reckon the foremost one. In volleyball i of the most of import actions is the volleyball spike. This technical motility is performed amongst a stretch-shortening cycle of the leg’s extensors muscles. We know the muscles involved inwards such motility together with nosotros know the mechanics (stretch-shortening cycle). We besides know that this motility is a unopen chain-type of activity. Hence, when choosing the exercises the cause patterns should to a greater extent than ofttimes than non survive characterised past times closed-chain-type of activities which copy similar mechanics.
Let’s right away reckon roughly other aspect: timing of musculus activation. The saltation together with spike activity inwards volleyball, depending upon the technique utilised, is performed amongst lower limbs muscles performing mechanical run for a duration ranging from 300 to 450 milliseconds (Bosco, 1985; Coutts, 1982; Viitasalo, 1982). Similar times were besides measured inwards 1 legged spike actions Huang et al. (1999). Specific exercises should besides survive included inwards the grooming excogitation repeating timing together with patterns of activation.
Now then, nosotros know that full general strength grooming is adept for enhancing neuromuscular surgical operation together with that adaptations are stimulus-specific. We besides know that the specific surgical operation demands are related to the capability of an athlete to limited maximal might inwards limited amount of time.
Let’s right away hash out periodization inwards elite volleyball. It is of import to state that the before model developed past times Matveyev together with presented inwards most books of grooming methodology should survive considered solely every bit a pedagogical model, together with non every bit a existent model to survive based on. Most of all, it should survive pointed that most of the periodization models take away hold been developed for private sports together with cyclic activities (running, rowing, cycling) together with in that location is at the minute no model available for squad sports demands. So, nosotros should re-consider all the data which is available on this topic. From a pedagogical standpoint roughly concepts of periodization are important.
It is inwards fact the Definition of specific work to ease ratios, volume undulations, together with intensity undulations, that defines effective grooming cycles. However it should survive pointed out that what is adept for a squad cannot survive adept for roughly other one, since in that location are different individuals together with different athletic levels. This way quite frankly that it is impossible to take away hold an “optimal model”. There are nevertheless full general concepts which are useful for developing an effective periodization model.
In most American books periodization is divided into iii phases: preparatory, competitive together with transition phase. We know that nowadays top volleyball players take away hold a rattling long competitive flavor together with a rattling curt preparatory together with transition phases. Lower grade players of course of instruction take away hold the luxury of fourth dimension together with could pass to a greater extent than fourth dimension inwards preparation and/or transition. If nosotros await at the typical playing patterns of international players together with the typical guild together with national squad calendar of elite European nations nosotros tin run into how roughly players displace from Club activity to an intense summertime of International activity to together with then start i time to a greater extent than inwards the Club amongst minimal fourth dimension for recovery together with virtually no fourth dimension to prepare before getting involved inwards farther competitions.
In many books an optimal progression is suggested for strength training: anatomical adaptation phase, hypertrophy phase, maximum strength phase, conversion stage together with maintenance phase. Those concepts are of course of instruction based upon the construction of the sport flavor inwards USA where the competitive flavor is relatively curt every bit compared to Europe together with in that location is a lot of fourth dimension for preparing the flavor itself, amongst virtually no fourth dimension during the competitions.
I accept the freedom to soil that this approach is incorrect inwards European sporting seasons inwards most squad sports. For sure, survive able to go through all of the to a higher house mentioned phases, nosotros should take away hold plenty time. We all know in that location is no fourth dimension (and this is non a bad affair sometimes…). Hence, the solution is a different approach to strength training.
In this approach approach, maximal dynamic together with explosive-type loads take away hold to survive used concurrently, inwards monastic tell to gain forcefulness together with might at same time. Of course of instruction a adept planning should modify during the flavor the per centum of mass dedicated to i or the other, but during the whole flavor both take away hold to survive trained. The key for agreement when together with if it is fourth dimension to modify something inwards the grooming computer program is testing.
Adaptations to strength grooming programs depend on the type of muscular activation, intensity together with mass (Sale & Mac Dougall, 1981; Atha, 1981). We know inwards fact that grooming strength utilising heavy loads together with depression contraction speed create upward one’s take away heed enhancement of maximal dynamic strength (Berger, 1962; Hakkinen, 1994). However, it is of import to state that inwards monastic tell to make enhancement inwards might together with explosive-type motions, those loads take away hold to survive lifted amongst the highest possible speed together with lighter loads take away hold to survive utilised every bit good (Berger, 1963; Hakkinen, 1994; Kaneko et al., 1983; Moritani et al. 1987). The combined methodology has been shown to survive productive inwards enhancing a wider spectrum of the force/velocity capabilities of skeletal muscles (Harris et al., 2000; Newton & Kraemer, 1994; Stone, 1993; Stone et al. 1980).
The characteristics of the explosive-power exercises must survive curt duration (200-300msec) together with high intensity. An instance of the different activation patterns are presented inwards Figures 1 together with 2. In this instance a professional person woman soul volleyball instrumentalist was performing one-half squat amongst 70% of 1RM together with drib jumps from a box 40cm high starting amongst knee articulation bent at 90°. Here it is possible to run into the different EMG activity together with the duration of the mechanical work. This is an instance of the different timing together with musculus activation patterns inwards different exercises. Again, this is a back upward of this “muscle tuning” approach to strength training. The aim is to permit to the neuromuscular organization to limited its maximum inwards a working fourth dimension spectrum which is the feature of the surgical operation demand. So, when choosing the exercises together with developing a program, e’er in that location is a necessitate of using combined exercises (maximal dynamic strength together with explosive strength).
Figure 1. Half Squat amongst 70% of 1RM load. Biomechanical Analysis
Figure 2. Drop Jump. Biomechanical Analysis
It is impossible to take away hold a specific model for planning a flavor inwards squad sport. The periodization excogitation should accept into draw concern human relationship the grade of the team, the competitions, the number of the players available, the travelling schedules together with many other aspects. Most of the times, what is planned at the start needs to survive changed, due to the results together with participation to different competitions (European Cups, Play-offs…). It way that the solely way to attempt non to brand mistakes leading to overtraining or underperformance is to assay routinely the players together with adjust the programme allowing appropriate rest-to-work ratios. Of course of instruction it is of import inwards the pre-competitive stage to increment the grooming mass to construct upward maximal dynamic strength to a greater extent than ofttimes than non together with endurance to the game throughout game-like drills. Then, it is possible to increment intensity, increment the amount of explosive-type exercises together with set to a greater extent than emphasis on speed-strength drills. Rest is important, if your players take away hold plenty ease they volition perform e’er good non solely inwards contest but besides when intense technical together with tactical sessions are planned. Sometimes it is ameliorate allowing i or 2 days off rather together with then exaggerating amongst grooming sessions. One principal rule: if the players are tired, the best grooming is ease together with recovery!
In the next figures in that location are examples of the grooming charge (always referred solely to the strength grooming sessions) of professional person woman soul volleyball teams participating inwards diverse competitions. As you lot tin run into 2 teams amongst 2 different charge distributions tin soundless improve vertical jumping ability. In i instance at a sure enough fourth dimension of the flavor due to a high density of competitions, the grooming charge was lowered to keep the grade reached together with avoid overtraining. In the 2nd case, a different approach was used since the goals together with the characteristics of the squad were different.
These are solely examples of how to care together with excogitation the season. The most of import expression to squall upward is that without a proper testing together with monitoring physical care for you lot would never survive able to sympathize if the excogitation is effective or non together with most of all, inwards which administration adaptations are going (are the players gaining strength, might or both?). Without this approach, grooming becomes only a blind approximate which is unlikely to make surgical operation gains.
Figure 3. Training charge together with vertical jumping might inwards a professional person volleyball squad participating inwards the Castilian League, Castilian Cup together with European Champion’s League (average values n=10)
Figure 4. Training charge together with vertical jumping might inwards a professional person volleyball squad participating inwards the Italian League together with Italian Cup (average values n=10)