Monitoring preparation load: quo vadis? #2

After having presented a unproblematic method to monitor preparation charge without the demand of expensive equipment, it is at nowadays the fourth dimension to hash out other methods which involve the role of equipment.

The firstly as well as obvious ane is monitoring preparation alongside the role of center charge per unit of measurement monitors. Thanks to the evolution of technology scientific discipline it is nowadays possible to mensurate inwards existent fourth dimension center charge per unit of measurement (HR) of numerous players on the champaign without the demand for them to article of apparel a lookout adult man or a recording device. Many companies inwards fact render telemetry systems capable of storing as well as transmitting center charge per unit of measurement values recorded during preparation and/or competition. When I firstly started working inwards this champaign may years agone I recall the excitement of beingness able to mensurate HR during preparation as well as live able to download the files for analysis using the conventional center charge per unit of measurement bands as well as watches. The toll was prohibitive (there was no means I could afford xx watches + HR bands!), it took ages to download the files alongside 1 interface connected to a series port, as well as most of all, because athletes needed to article of apparel a watch…we had to live creative near where to house it as well as also live prepared to sacrifice a few inwards around contact sports or due to falls.

Nowadays, it is really easy! The electrical flow systems tin reach notice transmit information inwards existent time, it is possible to mensurate many athletes at the same fourth dimension as well as it is possible to shop as well as analyse all information instantly subsequently the terminate of each preparation session. Furthermore, due to the improved character of the sensors used as well as the software as well as hardware developments, it is also possible to mensurate R-R intervals as well as analyse center charge per unit of measurement variability (HRV).



Heart charge per unit of measurement tin reach notice live considered equally a reliable indicator of the physiological charge both for immediate preparation monitoring as well as for post-training analysis inwards almost every sport. However, considering the influence of psychological components similar anxiety as well as stress on HR, it is viable to propose that an appropriate assessment of preparation intensity should also reckon this limitation of HR monitoring.

Typical preparation plans of squad sports are characterised yesteryear a combination of technical as well as tactical specific drills, pocket-size sided games, or full general types of squad drills. In the inwards a higher house situations, all members or pocket-size groups of the squad perform similar tasks. The decision of preparation intensity as well as preparation stress is an extremely of import parameter for preparation planning as well as for appropriate distribution of preparation charge inwards elite athletes competing inwards squad sports.

The next methods accept been suggested to live effective inwards quantifying the preparation load:

The Training Impulse [TRIMP] method

Proposed yesteryear Bannister et al. (1975), characterised yesteryear the next equation:

TRIMP = preparation fourth dimension (minutes) x average center charge per unit of measurement (bpm).

For example, thirty minutes at 145 bpm. TRIMP = thirty x 145 = 4350

This approach is really simple, nevertheless it does non distinguish betwixt dissimilar levels of training. So it has been used mainly to hit upward one’s take away heed full general charge inwards aerobic-endurance sessions.


Developed yesteryear Foster et al (2001)  is based on assigning a coefficient of intensity to v HR zones expressed equally a % of HRmax:

1. 50-60% HRmax

2. 60-70% HRmax

3. 70-80% HRmax

4. 80-90% HRmax

5. 90-100% HRmax

The zone publish is used to quantify preparation intensity; TRIMP is calculated equally the cumulative full of fourth dimension spent inwards each preparation zone.

For example

  • 30 minutes at 140 bpm. Max HR = 185 bpm. %max HR = 140/185 x 100 = 76%. Therefore, preparation intensity = 3.

TRIMP = preparation book (time) x preparation intensity (HR zone) = thirty x three = 90.

  • 25 minutes at 180 bpm. Max HR = 185 bpm. %max HR = 97%.

Training intensity = 5. TRIMP = 25 x 5 = 125

The zone TRIMP calculation method tin reach notice distinguish betwixt preparation levels piece remaining mathematically simple, nevertheless this tin reach notice exclusively quantify aerobic preparation as well as it does non allow quantification of strength, speed, anaerobic as well as technical sessions.


Combining the ii methods allows the decision of preparation intensity non exclusively from a cardiovascular standpoint, precisely also taking into describe of piece of job concern human relationship the perception of endeavor as well as tin reach notice live extended to push clit preparation to live able to collect a cumulative preparation charge score.

EPOC (excess post-exercise oxygen consumption) Methods

EPOC is basically the excess oxygen consumed during recovery from practice equally compared to resting oxygen consumption. The EPOC prediction method has been developed to render a physiology-based mensurate for preparation charge assessment.

EPOC is predicted exclusively on the footing of center charge per unit of measurement derived information. The variables used inwards the estimation are electrical flow intensity (%VO2max) as well as duration of practice (time betwixt ii sampling points, Dt) as well as EPOC inwards the previous sampling point. The model is able to predict the amount of EPOC at whatever given moment. No post-exercise mensuration is needed. The model tin reach notice live mathematically described equally follows:

EPOC (t) = f(EPOC(t-1), exercise_intensity(t), Dt) (Saalasti, 2003)

At depression practice intensity (<30-40%VO2max), EPOC does non accumulate significantly subsequently the initial growth at the outset of exercise. At higher practice intensities (>50%VO2max), EPOC accumulates continuously. The gradient of accumulation gets steeper alongside increasing intensity.

(The next figure is from Firstbeat Technologies Withepaper)image

The human relationship betwixt measured as well as HR derived EPOC has been shown to live significantly large suggesting this method equally an option solution to hit upward one’s take away heed preparation charge alongside minimally invasive procedures such equally wearing a breast band (Rusko et al., 2003).


And yesteryear the same authors has been shown to live related to blood lactate.


The EPOC approach has been nowadays introduced yesteryear diverse HR monitors manufacturers ( as well as

(Figure inwards a higher house from

Various manufacturers are at nowadays developing innovative approaches to push clit preparation loads based on HR measurements (e.g. as well as to a greater extent than volition live available presently due to the mightiness for the electrical flow systems to tape alongside high accuracy also R-R intervals as well as derive preparation stress information from Heart Rate Variability indices.

I volition write to a greater extent than on these inwards the side yesteryear side posts on this interesting topic…this is it for now…stay tuned!